As an evidence-based model, the Lethality Assessment Program-Maryland Model (LAP) is rooted in and informed by outside research in order to provide the best model, training, and service-delivery for all types of agencies and all types of victims. See our purpose, vision, and values statement [hyperlink].

There are several pieces of research that were central in informing the development of the LAP.

Between 1994 and 2000, Dr. Jacquelyn Campbell and colleagues reviewed hundreds of cases of women who had been killed by their intimate partners in 11 cities (some rural, some urban) across the U.S. The cases included in the study were diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age of the victim. Researchers were interested to know what victims who are killed by their intimate partners have in common with one another.

Simultaneously, researchers conducted a qualitative study of women who had been nearly killed by their intimate partners. These first-hand accounts of homicide attempts, and the various relationship and circumstantial characteristics that led up to the homicide, substantiated the findings of the quantitative case review study.

The 11 questions that are on the Lethality Screen represent some of the factors found in these studies to be the most predictive of homicide in relationships with intimate partner violence/abuse.

In 2013, Dr. Campbell, along with researchers from the University of Oklahoma and Arizona State University, concluded a 6-year validation study of the LAP, in which they studied both the ability of the Screen to predict severe violence, as well as the outcomes of victims’ participation in the LAP.

The citations for these three studies, and the downloadable published articles, are here:

Campbell, J.C., et al. (2003). Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: Results from a multi-site case study. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1089-1097.

Nicolaidis, C., et al (2003). Could we have known? A qualitative analysis of data from women who survived an attempted homicide by an intimate partner. Journal of General Internal Medicine 18, 788-794.

Messing, J., et al (2014). Police Departments’ Use of the Lethality Assessment Program: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

See Public Stats Memo.

If you are interested in learning more about Dr. Campbell’s research, please visit for further information.